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RAM Guide: Chapter 4 - Design and Redesign for RAM life cycle at a significant expense. The primary emphasis of the maintainability program is to identify and correct maintainability problems early in the design process when correction simply requires changing drawings. Maintainability is defined as the measure of the ability of an item to be retained in or restored to a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. Testing related to maintainability can be grouped into five basic areas: functional, performance, verification, demonstration, and evaluation. 1. Functional: Verify that a product or product function (i.e., on-condition monitoring or built-in test (BIT)) is operating as intended. Functional testing usually involves applying a known stimulus or set of stimulus to the test item and comparing the item response to a known response or set of responses. 2. Performance: Confirm that the level of performance that the product functions at meets the specified requirements. BIT and diagnostic tests are specialized types of performance testing for maintainability that is conducted. 3. Verification: Continually performed throughout product development to determine the accuracy of and update the analytical data obtained from engineering analysis. Verification is typically performed prior to any planned demonstration or evaluation test to provide assurances that the maintainability of the product can be achieved and demonstrated. Test data should be collected and used to verify the maintainability analyses and requirements. 4. Demonstration: A formal process conducted by the product developer and the end customer to determine whether specific maintainability requirements that have been specified have been achieved. Demonstration testing will require a formal test plan be developed that will use defined methods of analysis to determine compliance. 5. Evaluation: For all levels of maintenance and product design, evaluation testing determines the impact of the operational as well as maintenance and support environments on the maintainability parameters of the product. Evaluation testing should be performed for defined maintenance tasks in the product's actual use environments. Maintainability analyses provide a means of: Determining how well the design is progressing toward meeting the maintainability requirements. Evaluating the impact of important design decisions, such as the type of fasteners used, design of support equipment, location of access panels, etc. Maintainability analyses include, but are not limited to: equipment downtime analysis, maintainability design evaluation, FMEA, testability analysis, and human factors analysis. Equipment downtime analysis is used to evaluate the expected time that a piece of equipment is not available due to maintenance or a supply backlog. Maintainability design evaluation is the process of analyzing the maintenance implications of a proposed or evolving design and providing feedback to the designer in a timely manner. The maintainability design evaluation 4-56

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