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Table 9-1. Typical Modes of Actuator Failure FAILURE MODE FAILURE CAUSE FAILURE EFFECT Internal leakage Side loading and piston wear, contaminants past rod seal Loss/reduction in output force External leakage Seal leakage, piston/cylinder wear Loss/reduction in output force Damaged rod seal Excessive side loading Contaminants entering actuator between shaft and cylinder Spurious position change Stiction, binding Loss of output control or incorrect signal transmission Jamming, seizure Excessive loading Loss of load control Aeration Air drawn past rod seals during actuation Damaged actuator and loss of seals Bearing failure Axial or side load on thrust bearing exceeding manufacturer's specification Loss of output force, damaged piston Lead nut failure Axial load on thrust bearing exceeding manufacturer's specification Loss of output force, damaged piston 9.3 FAILURE RATE MODEL FOR ACTUATOR The reliability of an actuator is primarily influenced by its load environment which can be subdivided into external loads and internal loads. External loads are forces acting on the actuator from outside sources due to its operating environment. Conditions of storage, transportation and ground servicing as well as impact loads during operation have an effect on the rate of failure. Internal loads are caused by forces acting inside the actuator as a result of pressure variations, pressure differentials, Actuators 9-4 Revision C

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