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CHAPTER COMPRESSORS 13.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 13.1 INTRODUCTION 1 13.2 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSORS 2 13.2.1 Rotary Compressors 3 13.2.2 Reciprocating Compressors 4 13.3 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS 5 13.4 COMPRESSOR FAILURE MODES 6 13.5 FAILURE RATE MODEL FOR COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY 10 13.6 FAILURE RATE MODEL FOR CASING 11 13.7 FAILURE RATE MODEL FOR DESIGN CONFIGURATION 11 13.7.1 Compressor Service Load Multiplying Factors 13 13.8 DIAPHRAGM FAILURE RATE MODEL 13 13.8.1 Axial Load Multiplying Factor 14 13.8.2 Atmospheric Contaminant Multiplying Factor 18 13.8.3 Liquid Contaminant Multiplying Factor 18 13.8.4 Temperature Multiplying Factor 19 13.9 REFERENCES 25 13.1 INTRODUCTION A compressor is a machine for compressing gas from an initial intake pressure to a higher exhaust pressure through a reduction in volume. A compressor consists of a driving unit, the compression unit and accessory equipment. The driving unit provides power to operate the compressor and may be an electric motor or a gasoline or diesel engine. Types of gases compressed include air for compressed tool and instrument air systems; hydrogen, oxygen, etc. for chemical processing and various gases for storage or transmission. A compressed air system consists of one or more compressors, each with the necessary power source, air regulator, intake air filter, aftercooler, air receiver, and connecting piping, together with a distribution system to carry the air to points of use. Compressors can be classified, in their broadest sense, in two categories: (1) positive displacement and (2) centrifugal. The positive-displacement classification can generally be described as a "volume reducing" type. In essence, an increase in gas pressure can be achieved by simultaneously reducing the volume enclosing the gas. In Compressors 13-1 Revision B

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