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CHAPTER SPRINGS 4.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 1 4.2 FAILURE MODES 4 4.2.1 Fatigue Stress 4 4.2.2 Spring Relaxation 5 4.2.3 Miscellaneous Failure Modes 6 4.3 FAILURE RATE CONSIDERATIONS 8 4.3.1 Static Springs 8 4.3.2 Cyclic Springs 8 4.3.3 Modulus of Rigidity 8 4.3.4 Modulus of Elasticity 8 4.3.5 Spring Index 8 4.3.6 Spring Rate 8 4.3.7 Shaped Springs 9 4.3.8 Number of Active Coils 9 4.3.9 Tensile Strength 9 4.3.10 Corrosive Environment 9 4.3.11 Manufacturing Processes 9 4.3.12 Other Reliability Considerations for Springs 10 4.4 FAILURE RATE MODELS 10 4.4.1 Compression Spring 10 4.4.2 Extension Spring 13 4.4.3 Torsion Spring 13 4.4.4 Curved Washer 16 4.4.5 Wave Washer 17 4.4.6 Belleville Washer 20 4.4.7 Cantilever Spring 22 4.4.8 Beam Spring 23 4.5 REFERENCES 41 4.1 INTRODUCTION Mechanical springs are used in machine designs to exert force, provide flexibility, and to store or absorb energy. Springs are manufactured for many different Springs 4_-| Revision E

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